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Since the ancient Byzantine civilization, and its influence, crosses the time frame between ancient and Medieval civilizations, I am including it under both headings.

Byzantine, and Byzantine influenced civilization began under the ancient Roman Empire and did not flicker to an end till the Communist revolution in Russia in the early 20th century.  Moscow was the final inheritor of Byzantine culture, though with a strong Slavic flavor, and was known as "The Third Rome," claiming direct succession from Byzantium itself.

In fact, it may be said that the Byzantine Empire is not totally dead yet.  The Double-Eagle flag of Byzantium can still be seen flying above the monasteries of Mount Athos, Greece.


Go to Byzantine Architecture

 

Ayasofya __ "Ayasofya" is another spelling for Hagia Sophia. "Probably Istanbul's most famous landmark, the Hagia Sophia (also spelled Ayasofya) was built by the emperor Justinian I in the year 537 AD. Built in only six years, the structure was designed by the architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus. On May 7, 558, the dome of the church collapsed due to a December 557 earthquake, and though a new dome was quickly rebuilt, historical records tell us that it was not identical to the original." You will find a good article and images. Learn how a computer model of the ancient church is being created. - illustrated - From Byzantine Architecture Project - http://www.princeton.edu/~asce/const_95/ayasofya.html

Byzantine Art and Architecture: Byzantine Architecture __ This is the page about Byzantine architecture from a website covering a wide range of information about the ancient Byzantine civilization. - From Fact Monster - http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/ent/A0857092.html

Byzantine Civilization __ "Byzantine civilization is considered to be a continuation of ancient Greek civilization with many Roman and Eastern influences. Its main identifying feature ..."  You will find a brief history. - From greekembassy.or.id - http://www.greekembassy.or.id/pages_en/General/History/Byzantin.html

byzantine clothing info __ A good deal of information about Byzantine dress but sadly no pictures. - From Black Tauna - http://blacktauna.tripod.com/byzantineclothinginfo.html 

Byzantine Empire __ You will find an encyclopedic article along with links to additional resources. - illustrated - From wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Empire

Byzantine Empire __ An introduction to the Byzantine Empire for younger students. - From icsd.k12.ny.us - http://www.icsd.k12.ny.us/legacy/highschool/socstud/global2_review/byzantine_empire.htm

The Byzantine Empire __ "It is not possible to effectually distinguish between the later empire in Rome and the Byzantine empire centered around Constantinople. For the Byzantines were the Roman Empire, not simply a continuation of it in the East."  A good general overview. - From wsu.edu - http://public.wsu.edu/~dee/MA/BYZ.HTM 

Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) including its cities, kings, religion and wars __ A very good overview of Byzantine civilization and its history.  Use the links at upper left for even more detail. - From history-world.org - http://history-world.org/byzantine_empire.htm

Byzantine Recipes __ How to dine like the Byzantine middle and upper classes. And the answer is yes, "Garum," that questionable fish sauce of ancient Rome was still in use. Enjoy. - From godecookery.com - http://www.godecookery.com/byznrec/byznrec.htm

Byzantine Reference Documents __ You will find date lists for Byzantine emperors, patriarchs of all five great sees and a guide to the Byzantine historiographical tradition. You will also find Byzantine Sources in Translation - "Preliminary Version - a listing of Byzantine sources translated into Western European languages." - illustrated and lots of links - From Paul Halsall - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/byzantium/


 
Byzantium - Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies Online __ Here is a large and valuable resource for most all aspects of Byzantine studies. You will find courses, grants information, news, fieldwork reports, and more. Well worth a visit. - illustrated - From Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies Online - http://www.byzantium.ac.uk/

Byzantium: The Farmer's Law, 7-8th Centuries __ One of the windows onto the life of Byzantine peasants comes from Byzantine law covering farmers. Here are some examples - From Medievel Source Book - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/farmerslaw.html

Byzantium Through The Ages A Timeline __ Annotated timeline from the early 4th century till the fall to the Turks. Image links to the left lead to a more detailed explanation of the image.- illustrated - From metmuseum.org - http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/byzantium/time.html

ByzNet Byzantine Studies on the Net __ "This site is dedicated to the study of the Byzantine Empire, or later Roman Empire, Eastern Roman Empire or the Greek Empire. What you call this ancient political entity really isn't the point. The point is that the history and culture are rich and vibrant and deserve further study and attention." - photos and other illustrations - From Thoughtline.com - http://www.thoughtline.com/byznet/index.html

Chronology of Early Byzantine History __ Actually these are notes for a classroom course but the notes themselves are quite informative. - From Timothy E. Gregory / osu.edu - http://isthmia.osu.edu/teg/50501/chron.htm

Constantine I (The Great) __ "The emperor Constantine has rightly been called the most important emperor of Late Antiquity. His powerful personality laid the foundations of post-classical European civilization; his reign was eventful and highly dramatic. His victory at the Milvian Bridge counts among the most decisive moments in world history, while his legalization and support of Christianity and his foundation of a 'New Rome' at Byzantium rank among the most momentous decisions ever made by a European ruler."  A biography with many embedded links to additional or related information. - illustrated - From roman-emperors.org - http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm  
 
David Kennedy and Derrick Riley. Rome's Desert Frontier __ While not entirely Byzantine, this paper details much of the social order of the east which influenced byzantine civilization. This is a good background for further Byzantine studies. - From Fordham University - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/ken.html

The Electronic Passport to the Byzantine Empire __ A one page introduction to the Byzantine Empire which includes a couple of good links to related Byzantine material as well as links to other aspects of the ancient world. - illustrated - From Mr. Dowling's Electronic Passport - http://www.mrdowling.com/703-byzantine.html

The First Council of Nicaea __ Learn about a defining moment in Byzantine and Christian history. - From newadvent.org - http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11044a.htm 

The Forgotten Empire __ This is a good overview of Byzantine history. When the Western Roman Empire fell, Byzantium lasted another thousand years. - From Melissa Snell at About.com - http://historymedren.about.com/library/weekly/aa100697.htm

The Glory of Byzantium - Metropolitan Museum of Art __ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art's on-line exploration of Byzantium was created in conjunction with the international loan exhibition The Glory of Byzantium (March 11 - July 6, 1997), which celebrated the art of the second golden age of Byzantine art (8431261). This on-line exploration moves beyond the time frame of the exhibition and includes examples of art from the first golden age of Byzantine art (324730) and the late period, which ended with the Turkish conquest in 1453." - well illustrated - From Metropolitan Museum of Art - http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/Byzantium/byzhome.html 

Irfan Shahid. Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fifth Century __ "Of the three constituents of Byzantinism -- the Roman, the Greek, and the Christian --it was the last that affected, influenced, and sometimes even controlled the lives of those Arabs who moved in the Byzantine orbit. Some- thing has been said on this influence in the fourth century, and these conclusions may be refined and enlarged with new data for the fifth." You will find out much more in this interesting and detailed paper. - From Dumbarton Oaks Research Library - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/shahid.html

Justinian __ "The reign of Justinian was a turning-point in Late Antiquity. It is the period when paganism finally lost its long struggle to survive, and when the schism in Christianity between the Monophysite east and the Chalcedonian west became insurmountable."  An overview of his life and reign with embedded links to related materials. - illustrated - From James Allan Evans / University of British Columbia / roman-emperors.org - http://www.roman-emperors.org/justinia.htm

Lecture 17: Byzantine Civilization __ One of a series of lectures about various ancient civilizations with many embedded links to related materials. - From historyguide.org - http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/lecture17b.html

List of sites on Byzantine History and Culture __ Another directory of Byzantine only a couple of which overlap here. - From neobyzantine.org - http://www.neobyzantine.org/links/byzantium.php 
 
Mango. Byzantium: The Empire of New Rome__ "All empires have ruled over a diversity of peoples and in this respect the Byzantine Empire was no exception. Had its constituent population been reasonably well fused, had it been united in accepting the Empire's dominant civilization, it would hardly have been necessary to devote a chapter to this topic." You will find it is an interesting chapter in which the author attempts to answer the question; "Who are the Byzantines?" - From Internet Medieval Sourcebook - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/mango.html

Procopius of Caesarea: The Secret History __ "Procopius of Caesarea (in Palestine) [born c.490/507- died c.560s] is the most important source for information about the reign of the emperor Justinian [born 482/3, ruled. 527-565] and his wife Theodora [d. 547/8]. From 527 to 531 Procopius was a counsel the great general of the time, Belisarius [505-565]. He was on Belisarius's first Persian campaign [527-531], and later took part in an expedition against the Vandals [533-534]. He was in Italy on the Gothic campaign until 540, after which he lived in Constantinople, since he describes the great plague of 542 in the capital. His life after that is largely unknown, although he was given the title illustris in 560 and in may have been prefect of Constantinople in 562-3." - From Medieval Sourcebook - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/procop-anec.html

Selective Byzantine Timeline __ Its just what the title says it is, a timeline of Byzantine civilization. - text links to additional material - From About.com - http://historymedren.about.com/library/blbyztime.htm 


 

 

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