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Aztec - General Resources - Inca - Maya - Olmec - Taino

Aztec

The Ancient Aztecs __ You will find a timeline, rulers, religious beliefs, Aztec daily life, and more. - illustrated - From thinkquest.org - http://library.thinkquest.org/27981/ 

Aztec Architecture and Building __ "The ancient Aztec people greatly valued superior work and craftsmanship. This is reflected in their architecture and is most noticeable in their religious buildings. The Aztecs' main purpose for creating their products was to honor their gods(Vaillant 156)."  This is a good overview of Aztec architecture including city planning, pyramid types, building materials, and more. - Illustrated - By Christina Moore - http://www.courses.psu.edu/anth/anth008_cmg149/aztec.html

Aztec Civilization __ You will find information about the Aztec calendar, creation stories, culture, current archaeological discoveries, and more. - illustrated - From crystalinks.com - http://www.crystalinks.com/aztecs.html 

Aztec Community __ Good introduction of Aztec civilization for the younger student. - illustration of Calendar Stone - http://www2.truman.edu/~marc/webpages/nativesp99/aztecs/aztec_template.html

Aztec Creation Story __ Story of how the Aztecs believed they came into existence. - http://www.indians.org/welker/aztecs.htm

Aztec History __ "The story of the Aztecs' rise to power is awe inspiring one, and is one of the most remarkable stories in world history."  You will find a good overview. - From crystalinks.com - http://www.crystalinks.com/aztechistory.html 

Aztec Mythology __ You will find an Aztec Mythology lesson plan with loads of resources and information. It is written for fourth and fifth grade students in Talented and Gifted Programs - from Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute - http://www.cis.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1994/3/94.03.03.x.html 

Aztecs __ Introduction to Aztec civilization for the younger student. - illustrated, history - From Snaith Primary School - http://home.freeuk.net/elloughton13/aztecs.htm

The Aztecs __ This is a great introduction to Aztec civilization for the younger student.  You will find many aspects covered from daily life to military. - illustrated - From Nettlesworth Primary School - http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/nettsch/time/aztec.html

The Aztecs: A Pre-Columbian History __ Here is curriculum guide offering an introduction to the most widely known of all pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas. - From Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute - http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1999/2/99.02.01.x.html 

Indigenous Peoples' Literature: The Aztecs/Mexicas __ You will find material which includes Aztec creation stories and poems as well as information about their culture and languages. - From Glenn Welker - http://www.indians.org/welker/aztec.htm 

The Legend of the Four Suns __ Scholarly site about the calendar system used by the Aztecs.  illustrated, detailed information - http://www.earthmatrix.com/serie15/cuad15.htm

Mexico History - The Aztecs __ Summary of Aztec history - http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/hpostclassic2.html

 

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General Resources

Ancient Mesoamerican Civilizations __ Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec & Aztec - Good introduction to four Mesoamerican civilizations - illustrated - From Kevin L. Callahan - http://www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins/index.html

Ancient Mesoamerican Writing __ Learn about the symbolism and iconography of ancient Mesoamerican writing systems.  "Developing independently of Mediterranean or Asian cultures, there are several different types of pre-conquest writing that represent a unique intellectual achievement in this part of the new world." - illustrated - From GB Online's Mesoamerica - http://pages.prodigy.com/GBonline/ancwrite.html

Early Monumental Architecture of the Peruvian Coast __ About the earliest monumental architecture along the central and northern Peruvian coast. - illustrated - From James Q. Jacobs - http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/coast.html

GB_Online Mesoamerica __ Comprehensive overview of Mesoamerican civilizations - photos - http://pages.prodigy.com/GBonline/mesowelc.html

Huaca del Moche __ About the Moche of the Andes lowlands. "The most basic terminology question relating to the Moche is what to call them. Originally, thanks to a cultural template system of understanding people groups, there was no unified "Moche" -- only disparate groups defined by their artistic or technological style, e.g. the blackware culture..." - illustrated -  http://members.tripod.com/~Moche/

Jordan: Mesoamerican Chronology __ Full of information by date.  Also a comparison chronology to events in the rest of the world - http://weber.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/arch/mexchron.html

Mesoamerican Governments __ Here is a good overview of four Mesoamerican governments.  You will find articles about the Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec and Aztec. - illustrated - From Kevin L. Callahan - http://www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins/government.html#maya

Pacaritambo - Machu Picchu Magazine and History Bookstore __ While this is a commercial website, you will find a series of interesting articles on the left side of the page. Some of these articles are designed for younger readers.- illustrated - From pacaritambo.com - http://www.pacaritambo.com/ 

Pagina Principal Huacas del Sol y la Luna __ About the Moche civilization - very large website, photos and other illustrations - http://www.huacas.com/

Prehistory of the Andean Peoples __ Good overview of Andean prehistory - photos and other illustrations - http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/andes_prehistory.html

Welcome To The Mesoamerican Ballgame __ Learn about what many claim is the oldest team sport in the world.  It really is a game of life and death.  About the game of ball in Mesoamerica - well illustrated, Flash player needed - From the National Endowment for the Arts - http://www.ballgame.org/

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Inca

1492 - The Andes __ The way things were in the Inca civilization in 1492 when the New World was re-discovered by European explorers.  - photos - http://sunsite.unc.edu/expo/1492.exhibit/a-America/andes.html

Chronicles of the Incas, 1540 __ A view of the Incan economy from conquistador Pedro de Cieza de Léon. - From Modern History Sourcebook - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1540cieza.html 

Inca __ Children of the Sun - Descriptions of Inca royalty and daily life - illustrated - http://www.travelvantage.com/per_inca.html

Inca Architecture __ Introduction to Inca architecture.  - photos and other illustrations - From Rutahsa Adventures, Inc. - http://www.rutahsa.com/incaarch.html

Inca Civilization __ "Inca can be spelled Inka and was known as Tiwantinsuya."  read about their origins and culture, find a king list and much more. - illustrated - From crystalinks.com - http://www.crystalinks.com/incan.html 

Inca Empire __ Introduction to the Inca empire. - photos, history, various topics - http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/incaempire.htm

Mummies of the Inca/Buried Artifacts __ "This is a part of larger site dealing with Sara Sara, a sacrificial mountain of great religious importance to the Inca people. There are several photos with text explanations and an on-site link to the ceremony surrounding child sacrifice." - ILlustrated - From PBS - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/peru/worlds/index.html

National Geographic Inca Mummies: Pictures, Maps, Links __ "Get information about mummies found beneath a Peruvian shantytown, see photos of them, unwrap a virtual mummy, download Inca Empire maps, and more." - illustrated - From National Geographic Society - http://www.nationalgeographic.com/inca/ 

NOVA Online | Ice Mummies of the Inca __ "NOVA presents an online expedition to Peru to search for Incan mummies at the top of Mt. Sara Sara" - illustrated - From NOVA - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/peru/ 

Talking Knots of the Inka __ "An Inka accounting system that used knotted strings called quipus to record numerical data has long been known to scholars. The complexity and number of knots indicated the contents of warehouses, the number of taxpayers in a given province, and census figures. Were quipus also used to record calendars, astronomical observations, accounts of battles and dynastic successions, and literature? If so, all knowledge of such use has been lost--or has it?"  Find out for yourself. - From Archaeological Institute of America - http://www.archaeology.org/9611/abstracts/inka.html 

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Maya

Aztec and Maya Dance __ photos and animations of Aztec and Maya dancers. - From Cultures.com/Fleet Gazelle - http://www.cultures.com/features/dance/dancers.html

Big Water __ Learn about water management of the ancient Maya.  This site deals with water management in the city of Palenque. - illustrated - From Mesoweb.com - http://www.mesoweb.com/palenque/features/bigwater.html

Classical Mayan Civilization __ "The earliest Mayas are thought to have migrated from the northwest coast of California to the Guatemalan highlands during the third millennium B.C." - broad history of Maya and the region - http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/classical%20maya.html

GORP - Ancient Mayan Mexico __ The author of this page has created a down to earth site about the Maya - photos - http://www.gorp.com/gorp/location/latamer/mexico/arc_maya.htm

Head Shaping and Dental Decoration Among the Ancient Maya __ You will need an Acrobat Reader.  the paper is about cosmetic deformity among the Maya.  You can reach a photo without downloading to PDF. - From Mesoweb.com - http://www.mesoweb.com/features/tiesler/index.html

An Introduction to the Classic Period Maya III ~*Politics*~ __ "There were three main Maya centers, circa 800 BC: Kaminaljuyu, which is buried under Guatemala City, in the highlands, Dzibilchaltun, in the Yucatan, and Tikal, in the central lowlands/Peten. It is said that the Tikal Metropolis was perhaps the most politically powerful of all Maya centers."  Learn about the social classes and the political process of the time. - from ancientworlds.net - http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/117526 

Journey Through Tikal __ "This interactive site explores the ancient Mayan ruins of Tikal, a city that flourished over 2,000 years ago in Central America." - illustrated - From Studio 360 - http://www.destination360.com/tikal.htm

The Maya Astronomy Page __ About Maya astronomy, writing, and mathematics - illustrated - http://www.michielb.nl/maya/astro.html

Maya Calendar Round __ "While the Maya are known for their phenomenally accurate, complex, calculations of the orbits of stars, planets and moon, and precise reckoning of the solstices and eclipses, there is also an effective, but much more ordinary, almost easy to understand calendar. It wasn't too easy, though: Only shamans could calculate it."  You will find a good explanation of what is known as the Calendar Round. - From About.com - http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa101700a.htm

Maya Creator Gods __  You will need Acrobat Reader for this.  An excellent paper dealing with Maya Creator Gods including over 60 illustrations - From Mesoweb.com - http://www.mesoweb.com/features/bassie/CreatorGods/CreatorGods.pdf

Mayan Civilization __ A good look at Maya civilization including history, writing, geography and landscape. - From Glenn Welker - http://www.indians.org/welker/maya.htm 

Palenque Features __ Read about Smoking Lark, the third Palenque leader. - From Mesoweb.com - PDF format only - http://www.mesoweb.com/palenque/features/boot/media/SmokingLark.pdf

Photo Archive - Science Museum of Minnesota __ Dozens of  'titled' photos dealing with the ancient Maya civilization. Excellent resource for illustrating any reports or projects you may be doing. - From Science Museum of Minnesota - http://www.sci.mus.mn.us/sln/ma/teacher.html

Project One: Mayan Architecture  __ A good overview of Maya architecture including pyramids, temples, style, tools, and a lot more. - illustrated - By Christina Moore - http://www.courses.psu.edu/anth/anth008_cmg149/mayan.html

Reconstructing Maya and Zapotec Political Organization __ "Forms of archaeological evidence used to reconstruct Maya and Zapotec political organization include: 1) settlement information such as building size, building function, number of hours to construct, number of occupants, population size, spatial position and what buildings are closest to the central plaza or central ceremonial district e.g. the large elite houses/administrative buildings at Monte Alban; 2) artistic representations which frequently portrayed political symbols, propaganda, conquests of neighboring polities, and..." Much, much more actually.  You will find a good article and click-to-read resources. - illustrated -  From Kevin L. Callahan - http://www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins/political.html 

The Red Queen - A history and overview of the city of Palenque. - illustrated - From Mesoweb.com - http://www.mesoweb.com/palenque/features/red_queen/01.html

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Olmec

Civilizations in America Contents __ About who the Olmec were, where and when they lived - http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CIVAMRCA/OLMECS.HTM

Colossal Heads __ Here is a gallery of click-to-view images of the colossal head sculptures of the Olmecs. - From Mesoweb.com - http://www.mesoweb.com/olmec/headlinks.html

Mexico History - The Preclassic Period, The Olmeca Culture __ "The first significant civilization to develop in Mesoamerica was that of the Olmecs. Considered by some to be the mother culture of pre-Hispanic Mexico, the "rubber people" venerated the jaguar as supernatural. Olmec artifacts bearing images of the were-jaguar, distinguished by the combined physical characteristics of humans and felines, have been found scattered throughout Mexico. The remains of their ceremonial centers are found in the humid lowlands near the Gulf Coast in the states of Veracruz and Tabasco." You will find an overview of Olmec culture and read the biography of the website's author. - By Dale Hoyte Palfrey - http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/hpreclassic.html 

The Olmec __ A one page overview of Olmec civilization with excellent links to related materials and books. - illustrated - From Mesoweb.com - http://www.mesoweb.com/olmec/

Olmec Civilization - Introduction to Olmec Civilization  __ illustrated - From Crystalinks - http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html

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Taino

Caribbean Island Societies, The __ Overview of the Caribbean islands and their inhabitants at the time of discovery in 1492. The Taino tribe is featured here - illustrated - http://sunsite.unc.edu/expo/1492.exhibit/a-America/caribbean.html

Dominican Republic Research Home Page __ A lot of information to be found here but you need the patience to look for it.  - photos and other illustrations - http://www.indiana.edu/~r317doc/dr/

José Barreiro, A Note on Tainos: Whither Progress? __ "Learn about the Taino, their language and their culture. This paper deals not only with those topics but also with the meeting of the Taino and the Spanish. Among the Taino, generosity and kindness were the dominent values. Under the brutal onslaught of the Spanish, Taino civilization vanished within a couple of decades. The story of the Taino could make even the most hardened anthropologist weep over the destruction of a people who created a near paradise on Earth." - From Hartford Web Publishing - http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/41/013.html

Race and History.com /Taino/ __ "Learn the history of the Taino. Were there really such a people? "And the first startling fact we encounter is that when Columbus arrived at Hispaniola there were no people who were called 'Arawaks', and there never had been. If you were to go to Santo Domingo today people would tell you that their Amerindian ancestors were the 'Taino.' Actually, Indians of the Greater Antilles did not call themselves 'Taino,' no more than they called themselves 'Arawak' - that name was given them in 1935 by Sven Loven, a Swedish archaeologist,..." - From Race and History.com - http://raceandhistory.com/Taino/

Taino Indian Culture __ About Puerto Rico's ancient Taino culture and what happened to it. "The Taino were a people who created a society based on peace and cooperation, and contact with Europeans spelled their doom. When the Spanish settlers first came in 1508, anthropologists estimate their numbers to have been between 20,000 and 50,000 but maltreatment, disease, flight, and unsuccessful rebellion had diminished their number to 4,000 by 1515; in 1544 a bishop counted only 60, but these too were soon lost." - http://welcome.topuertorico.org/reference/taino.shtml

 

 

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